The gastrointestinal tract digestive tractdigestional tractGI tractGITgutor alimentary canal is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt feces.
The mouthesophagusstomach and intestines are part of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines.
A tract is Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt collection Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt related anatomic structures or a series of connected body organs.
All bilaterians have a gastrointestinal tract, also called a gut or an alimentary canal. This is a tube that transfers food to the organs of digestion. Some small bilaterians have Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt anus and dispose of solid Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt by other means for example, through the mouth.
The gastrointestinal tract contains thousands of different bacteria in its gut florathat play an important Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt in the immune Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt. The human gastrointestinal tract consists of Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt esophagusstomachand intestines, and is divided into the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts.
However, the complete human Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt system is made up of Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver and gallbladder. The whole human GI tract Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt about nine metres 30 feet long at autopsy.
It is considerably shorter in the living body because the intestines, Leben einer Thrombophlebitis are tubes of smooth muscle tissue Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt, maintain constant muscle tonesomewhat like a Slinky Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt maintains itself in a halfway-tense state but can relax in spots to allow for local distention and Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt. Cells Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt the GI tract release hormones to help regulate Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt digestive Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt. These digestive hormonesincluding click the following articleVarizen Gastrointestinaltraktcholecystokininand ghrelinare mediated through either intracrine or autocrine mechanisms, indicating that the cells releasing these hormones are conserved structures throughout evolution.
The structure and function can be described both as gross anatomy and as microscopic anatomy or histology. Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt tract itself is divided into upper and lower tracts, and the intestines small and large parts. The upper gastrointestinal tract consists of the buccal cavity Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt, pharynxesophagusstomachand duodenum. This delineates the embryonic borders between the foregut and midgut, and is also the division commonly used by clinicians to describe gastrointestinal bleeding as being of Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt "upper" or "lower" origin.
Upon dissectionthe duodenum may appear to be a unified organ, but it is divided into four segments based upon function, location, and internal anatomy. The four segments of the duodenum are as Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt starting at the stomach, and moving toward the jejunum: The suspensory muscle attaches the superior border of the ascending duodenum to the diaphragm. The suspensory muscle is an important anatomical landmark which shows the formal division between the duodenum and the jejunum, the first and second parts of the small intestine, respectively.
The lower gastrointestinal tract includes most of the small intestine and all of the large intestine. In humans, the small intestine is further subdivided into the duodenumjejunum and ileum while the large intestine is subdivided into the, cecumVarizen Gastrointestinaltrakt, transverse, descending and sigmoid colonrectumand anal canal.
The small intestine begins at the duodenum and is a tubular structure, usually between 6 and 7 m Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt. There are three major divisions:. The large Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt also called the colon, consists of the cecumrectumand anal canal.
The colon is further divided into:. The main function of the large intestine article source to absorb water. The area of the large intestinal mucosa of an adult human is about 2 Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt 2.
The gut is an endoderm -derived structure. At approximately the sixteenth day of human development, the embryo begins to fold ventrally with the embryo's ventral surface becoming concave in two directions: The result is that a piece of the Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt sacan endoderm -lined structure in contact with the Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt aspect of the embryo, begins to be Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt off to become the primitive gut.
The yolk sac remains connected to the gut tube via the vitelline duct. Usually this structure regresses during development; in cases where it does not, it is known as Meckel's diverticulum.
During fetal life, the primitive Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt is gradually patterned into three segments: Although these terms are Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt used in reference to segments of the primitive gut, they are also used regularly to describe Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt of the definitive gut as well. Each segment of Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt gut is further specified and gives rise to specific gut and gut-related structures in later development.
Components derived from the gut proper, including the stomach and colondevelop as swellings Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt dilatations in the cells of the primitive gut.
In contrast, gut-related derivatives — that is, those structures that derive from the primitive gut but are not part Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt the gut proper, in general develop as out-pouchings of the primitive gut. The blood vessels supplying these structures remain Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt throughout Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt. The gastrointestinal tract has a form Anfang Varizen Foto general histology Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt some differences that reflect the specialization in functional anatomy.
The mucosa is the innermost layer of the gastrointestinal tract. The mucosa surrounds the lumenor open space within the tube. This layer comes in direct contact with digested food chyme.
The mucosa is made up of:. The mucosae are highly specialized in each organ of the gastrointestinal tract to deal with the different conditions.
The most variation is seen in the epithelium. The submucosa consists of a dense irregular layer of connective tissue with large blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves branching into the mucosa and Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt externa.
It contains the submucosal plexusan enteric nervous plexussituated on the inner surface of the Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt externa. The muscular layer consists of an inner circular layer and a longitudinal outer layer.
Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt circular Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt prevents food from traveling backward and the longitudinal layer shortens the tract.
The layers are not truly longitudinal or circular, rather the layers of muscle are helical with different pitches. The inner circular is helical with a steep pitch and the outer longitudinal is helical with a much shallower pitch. Whilst the muscularis externa is similar throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract, an exception is the stomach which has an additional inner oblique muscular layer to aid with grinding and mixing of Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt. The muscularis externa of the stomach is comprised of the inner oblique layer, middle circular layer and outer longitudinal layer.
Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt the circular and longitudinal muscle layers is the myenteric plexus. Activity is initiated by the pacemaker Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt, myenteric interstitial cells of Cajal. The gut has intrinsic peristaltic activity Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt read article rhythm due to its self-contained enteric nervous system.
The rate can be modulated by the rest of the autonomic nervous system. The coordinated contractions of these layers Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt called peristalsis and propels the food through Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt tract.
Food in the GI tract is called a bolus ball of food from the mouth down to the stomach. After the stomach, the food Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt partially digested and semi-liquid, and is referred to as chyme. In the large intestine the remaining semi-solid substance is referred to as faeces. The outermost layer of the gastrointestinal tract consists of several layers of connective tissue. Intraperitoneal parts of the GI tract are covered with serosa. These include most of the stomachfirst part of the duodenumall of the small intestinecaecum and appendixtransverse colonsigmoid colon and rectum.
In these sections of the gut there is clear boundary between Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt gut and the surrounding tissue. These parts of the tract have a mesentery.
Retroperitoneal parts are covered with Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt. They blend into the surrounding tissue and are fixed in position.
For example, the retroperitoneal section of the duodenum usually Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt through the transpyloric plane. These include the esophaguspylorus of the stomach, distal duodenumascending colondescending colon and anal canal. In addition, the oral cavity has adventitia.
Specific proteins expressed in the stomach and go here involved in defence include mucin proteins, such as mucin 6 and intelectin Finally, transit through the colon takes 12 to 50 hours with wide variation between individuals. The gastrointestinal tract forms an important part of the immune system. There are additional factors contributing to protection from pathogen invasion.
For von Krampfadern als heilen, low Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt ranging from 1 to 4 of the stomach is fatal for many microorganisms that enter it.
Beneficial bacteria also can contribute to the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal immune system. For example Clostridiaone of the most predominant bacterial groups in the GI tract, play an important role in influencing the dynamics of the gut's immune system. This Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt due to the production of short-chain fatty acids during the fermentation of plant-derived nutrients such as butyrate and propionate.
Basically, the butyrate induces the differentiation of Treg cells Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt enhancing histone H3 acetylation in the promoter and conserved non-coding sequence regions of the FOXP3 locus, thus regulating the T cellsresulting in the reduction of the inflammatory Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt and allergies. The large intestine hosts several kinds of bacteria that can deal with molecules that the human body cannot otherwise break down.
These bacteria also account for the production of gases at host-pathogen interfaceinside our intestine this gas is released as flatulence when eliminated through the anus. However the large intestine is mainly concerned with the absorption of water from digested material which is regulated by the hypothalamus and the re Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt of sodiumas well as Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt nutrients that may have escaped primary digestion in the ileum.
Health-enhancing intestinal bacteria of the gut flora serve to prevent the overgrowth of potentially harmful bacteria in the gut. These two types of bacteria compete for space and "food," as there are limited resources within the intestinal tract. Enzymes such Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt CYP3A4along with Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt antiporter activities, are also instrumental in the intestine's role of drug metabolism in the detoxification of Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt and xenobiotics.
There are many diseases and conditions that can affect the gastrointestinal system, including infectionsinflammation and cancer. Various pathogens can cause gastroenteritis an inflammation of the Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt and small intestine.
These can include those organisms that Ludwigshafen am Rhein, um Varison foodborne illnesses.
Gastroenteritis is the most common disease of the GI tract. Diverticular disease is a condition that is very common in older people in industrialized countries. It usually affects the large intestine but has been known to affect the small intestine Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt well. Diverticulosis occurs when pouches form on the intestinal wall.
Once the pouches become inflamed it is known as diverticulitis. Inflammatory bowel disease is an inflammatory condition affecting the Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt walls, and includes the subtypes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
Looking for online definition of gastrointestinally in the Medical Dictionary to determine the loss of plasma proteins in the gastrointestinal tract.
Unter der oberen gastrointestinalen Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt versteht man eine Blutungdie vom oberen Gastrointestinaltraktd. Ulkusblutungen werden oft durch Medikamente verursacht. Zu Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt typischen ulzerogenen Substanzen gehören u. Eine obere gastrointestinale Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt imponiert durch das Erbrechen Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt hellrotem Blut Hämatemesis oder kaffeesatzartigem Blut.
Teerstühle Meläna sind manchmal das einzige Symptom einer oberen gastrointestinalen Blutung und treten erst mit zeitlicher Verzögerung auf. Eine starke Blutung kann zu einem hypovolämischen Schock mit Tachykardie und Blutdruckabfall führen.
Das Erbrechen von Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt weist auf eine obere gastrointestinale Blutung hin. Die Abklärung der Blutung erfolgt durch eine Ösophagogastroduodenoskopie. Zur Ursachenforschung sollten ein Blutbilddie Blutgerinnung und Leberenzyme herangezogen werden.
Die obere gastrointestinale Blutung wird durch die Read article nach Forrest klassifiziert:. Nach der stationären Aufnahme und der Stabilisierung des Kreislaufs des Patienten durch Elektrolytlösungenkolloidale Lösungen und Blut wird zunächst eine Endoskopie durchgeführt. Wird dabei die Ursache der Blutung entdeckt, wird zunächst versucht, die Blutung durch die Injektion von Adrenalinlösung oder Fibrinkleber zum Sistieren zu bringen.
Auch Laser - bzw. Thermokoagulation Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt mögliche Optionen. Ösophagusvarizenblutungen können häufig nur durch die Einlage von Sonden, sog. Sengstaken-Blakemore-Sondengestillt werden, welche nur für max. Magenfundusvarizen werden durch die Einlage von Linton-Nachlas-Sonden behandelt.
Um den Blutdruck im Splanchnikusgebiet zu senken, kann Vasopressin Fieber Krampf verabreicht werden. Zusätzlich sollte Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt Protonenpumpeninhibitor wie z. Omeprazol Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt Rabeprazol intravenös verabreicht werden. ChirurgieInnere MedizinNotfallmedizin. Um diesen Artikel zu kommentieren, melde Dich bitte an.
Tourniquet - zum schnellen Stoppen von Blutungen durch Abbinden. Obere Extremität Articulationes, Ligamennta.
Osteologicum - obere Extremität. Bitte logge Dich ein, um diesen Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt zu bearbeiten.
Mehr Versionen Was zeigt hierher Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt Druckansicht. Wichtiger Hinweis zu diesem Artikel. Oesophagus Blutung Clip Albertinen-Krankenhaus. Bei Krebsrisiko Ultraschall Gastrointestinale Blutungen KD Obere Atemwege Sabrina Leis Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt - obere Extremität M. Klicke hier, Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt einen neuen Artikel im DocCheck Flexikon anzulegen. Artikel wurde erstellt von: Du hast eine Varizen Gastrointestinaltrakt zum Flexikon?
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The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
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